Some of the notable editing changes are detailed below.
1) Over the last couple of years, the definition of the Act was almost turned upside down.
Version of September 2009:
- The ”’Posse Comitatus Act”’ is a United States federal law (usc|18|1385) passed on June 18, 1878, after the end of Reconstruction era of the United States, with the intention (in concert with the Insurrection Act of 1807) of substantially ”’limiting the powers of the federal government to use the military for law enforcement”’. The Act prohibits most members of the Uniformed services of the United States (today the United States Army, United States Air Force, and National Guard of the United States when such are called into federal service from exercising nominally state Law enforcement agency powers, police, or Law enforcement officer powers that maintain “Law and order (politics) ” on non-federal property (states and their counties and municipal divisions) within the United States.
Version of December 2011:
- The ”’Posse Comitatus Act”’ is the United States federal law (usc|18|1385) that was passed on June 18, 1878, after the end of Reconstruction era of the United States. Its intent (in concert with the Insurrection Act of 1807) was to limit the powers of local governments and law enforcement agencies from using federal military personnel to enforce the laws of the land. Contrary to popular belief, the Act does not prohibit members of the United States Army from exercising state Law enforcement agency powers, police, or Law enforcement officer powers that maintain “Law and order (politics) “; it simply requires that any orders to do so must originate with the United States Constitution or Act of Congress.
2) A notable deletion from the September 2009 version, is consistent with the general aversion of Wikipedia for detailed discussion of what took place during and in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina.
Version of September 2009:
- On September 26, 2006, George W. Bush urged Congress to consider revising federal laws so that U.S. armed forces could restore public order and enforce laws in the aftermath of a natural disaster, in the wake of Hurricane Katrina.
3) The discussion of the permanent deployment of the 3rd Infantry Division of the US Army inside the United States, under the Department of Homeland Security, through NORTHCOM was also deleted.
- Version of September 2009:
- Homeland security
- On October 1, 2008, the US Army announced that the 3rd Infantry Division (United States) 1st Brigade Combat Team (BCT) will be under the day-to-day control of U.S. Army North, the Army service component of United States Northern Command (NORTHCOM), as an on-call federal response force for natural or man-made emergencies and disasters, including terrorist attacks.
- This marks the first time an active U.S. Army unit will be given a dedicated assignment to NORTHCOM, where it is stated they may be ‘called upon to help with civil unrest and crowd control or to deal with potentially horrific scenarios such as massive poisoning and chaos in response to a chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear or high-yield explosive (CBRNE) attack. These soldiers will also learn how to use non-lethal weapons designed to subdue unruly or dangerous individuals without killing them, and also includes equipment to stand up a hasty road block; spike strips for slowing, stopping or controlling traffic; shields and batons; and Flexible baton round. however, the ””non-lethal crowd control package […] is intended for use on deployments to the war zone, not in the U.S.
- The US military will have around 20,000 uniformed personnel in this role in the United States by 2011, specifically trained and equipped to assist state and local government, respond to major disasters, terrorist attack, other major public emergencies. This shift in strategy is a result of recommendations by Congress and outside experts. This response capability is not new, but now accompanies a permanent assignment of forces to NORTHCOM.
- This formalizes a role for the use of federal troops within the United States during major public emergencies and disasters, as was the case in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina in 2005. However, federal military forces have a long history of domestic roles, including the occupation of sovereign Southern states during Reconstruction and the confiscation of private firearms in the Katrina aftermath. The Posse Comitatus Act prohibits the use of federal military forces to “execute the laws”; however, there is disagreement over whether this language may apply to troops used in an advisory, support, disaster response, or other homeland defense role, as opposed to conventional law enforcement.
The Wikipedia entry for the Posse Comitatus Act (1878) also provides a unique historic perspective on events that initiated the Robber Baron Era in the wake of the Civil War (1861-5), eerily reminiscent of this day and age: corporate deregulation, stolen presidential elections, [[iv]] and corruption of the justice system. [[v]]
[i] 11-12-02 Wikipedia as a Propaganda Tool – Posse Comitatus Act (1878)
[ii] 11-11-29 US Senate Approves Military Detentions in the United States
[iii] 11-11-24 Wikipedia on 1) Barack Obama, and 2) #Occupy – a propaganda tool of the corporate-government complex
[iv] 11-11-11 The ongoing Sheriff Joe/Obama’s Birth Certificate saga – and legitimacy of the 2012 US Presidential Election
[v] 11-12-01 #Occupy the Corrupt Courts – Citizens United and Corporate “Personhood”
[vi]  11-06-14 Corruption of the Courts and Failing Banking Regulation in the United States: Dred Scott redux?
 11-06-24 Time Magazine – 4th of July Issue: Does the Constitution Still Matter?
 11-10-03 Execution of US Citizens by Presidential Directives With No Due Process of Law
 11-11-22 Habeas Corpus in the United States – Medieval-Digital Era…
[vii] 11-09-09 The Medieval-Digital Era / Robber Baron Revival Era – User_InproperinLA – Wikipedia – soon to be deleted
Joseph Zernik, PhD
Human Rights Alert (NGO)
The 2010 submission of Human Rights Alert to the Human Rights Council (HRC) of the United Nations was reviewed by the HRC professional staff and incorporated in the official HRC Professional Staff Report with a note referring to “corruption of the courts and the legal profession and discrimination by law enforcement in California.”
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WHAT DID THE EXPERT SAY ABOUT THE CURRENT FINANCIAL CRISIS?
* Foreclosure fraud: The homeowner nightmares continue
CNN (April 7, 2011)
* About 3 million homes have been repossessed since the housing boom ended in 2006… That number could balloon to about 6 million by 2013
Bloomberg (January 2011)
* “…a system in which only the little people have to obey the law, while the rich, and bankers especially, can cheat and defraud without consequences.”
Prof Paul Krugman, MIT (2011)
WHAT DID THE EXPERTS SAY ABOUT THE JUSTICE SYSTEM IN LOS ANGELES COUNTY, CALIFORNIA?
* “…judges tried and sentenced a staggering number of people for crimes they did not commit.”
Prof David Burcham, Dean, Loyola Law School, LA (2001)
* “This is conduct associated with the most repressive dictators and police states… and judges must share responsibility when innocent people are convicted.”
Prof Erwin Chemerinsky, Dean, Irvine Law School (2001)
* “Innocent people remain in prison”
* “…the LA Superior Court and the DA office, the two other parts of the justice system that the Blue Panel Report recommends must be investigated relative to the integrity of the system, have not produced any response that we know of…”
LAPD Blue Ribbon Review Panel Report (2006)
WHAT DID THE EXPERTS SAY ABOUT THE JUSTICE SYSTEM IN CALIFORNIA?
* “…corruption of the courts and the legal profession and discrimination by law enforcement in California.”
United Nations Human Rights Council Staff Report (2010)
WHAT DID THE EXPERTS SAY ABOUT THE STATE COURTS IN THE UNITED STATES?
* “On July 26, 2010, Laurence Tribe, Senior Counsel for the United States Department of Justice, Access to Justice Initiative, delivered an important speech to the Conference of Chief Justices, challenging them to halt the disintegration of our state justice systems before they become indistinguishable from courts of third world nations.”
Prof Laurence Tribe, Harvard Law School (2010), per National Defender Leadership Institute (2010)
WHAT DID THE EXPERTS SAY ABOUT THE CONDITIONS IN THE PRISON IN MONROE COUNTY, TENESSEE?
* “What goes on there is more like gulags of centuries ago.”
WHAT DID THE EXPERTS SAY ABOUT THE SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES?
* “More than 100 law professors have signed on to a letter released today that proposes congressional hearings and legislation aimed at fashioning “mandatory and enforceable” ethics rules for Supreme Court justices for the first time. The effort, coordinated by the liberal Alliance for Justice, was triggered by “recent media reports,” the letter said, apparently referring to stories of meetings and other potential conflicts of interest involving Justices Antonin Scalia and Clarence Thomas among others.”
More than 100 law professors, as reported by the Blog of the Legal Times (February 2011)
WHAT DID CHIEF JUDGE OF THE US COURT OF APPEALS, 5TH CIRCUIT, SAY ABOUT THE US JUSTICE SYSTEM?
* “The American legal system has been corrupted almost beyond recognition…”
Chief Judge, US Court of Appeals, 5th Circuit, Edith Jones, speaking before the Federalist Society of Harvard Law School (February 2003)
WHAT DID THE CHAIR OF THE SENATE JUDICIARY COMMITTEE SAY ABOUT THE US JUSTICE SYSTEM?
* In a speech in Georgetown University, Senator Leahy, Chair of the Senate Judiciary Committee called for a “Truth and Reconciliation Commission” on the US Department of Justice.
Transcript of Senator Leahy speech (2009)
Human rights, freedom of the speech, government corruption, and more, will be discussed in:
Love, Peace, Justice
empowering the People through
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